The Advowson and next presentation to the rectory of Hartley, situate 5 miles from Northfleet and Southfleet, and within 10 of Dartford and Rochester - a beautiful, fine, healthy part of the county of Kent; comprising the great and small tithes of the parsih; containing about 1,200 acres of very good land, with a parsonage house, now in tenements, tithe barn, and outbuildings, and 9 acres of glebe land, producing an income of about £230 per annum. The present incumbent 52 years of age.... Messrs Skinner and Dyke, Aldergate Street, London."
[The advowson is the right to appoint a Church of England vicar to the church, they still exist today but you can't put them up for sale like this any more. In many cases such as Hartley, the owner failed to appoint someone in time and then the advowson falls into the hands of the bishop. The indelicate reference to the age of Rev Bradley is to give the buyer an indication of how long they might have to wait until they could exercise this right. In Hartley's case, Rev Bradley lived to 1826 by which time Edward Allen owned the advowson, he had no problems appoining a new rector as he chose...... himself!!]
Thomas Wood, for stealing a fat hog from Thomas Edmeads of Hartley - discharged by proclamation.
Thomas Couchman, aged 40, George Mills, 38, Richard Martin, 26, for stealing in Fawkham, 2 sheep, the property of Robert Allen, and 4 sheep adn 4 bushels of wheat, of Thomas Burberry; and 4 sheep of Henry Killick, and various similar offences - Couchman acquitted, Mills and Martin - death, reprieved."
Pennis House and Farm, a very desirable and compact freehold estate, land tax redeemed, delightfully situated in Fawkham, a most romantic part of the county of Kent, and distant 4 miles from Farningham, 6 from Dartford, 6 from Gravesend and 21 from London; the property consists of an elegant residence, cased with Roman Cement, erected within a few years at a considerable expense, and calculaed for the occupation of a famiy of the first resepectability, surrounded by extensive pleasure grounds and plantations, the whole arranged with peculiar (sic) taste, and 261 acres of arable, meadow, pasture and coppice lands, a substantial farm house, barn, stabling, and requisite outbuildings, a convenient cottage residence, with capital garden,and 2 other cottages. May be viewed by leave of the tenants ......
[A few fields of the Pennis estate are in the parish of Hartley]
To be sold by auction by Messrs Robins at The Mart, London, on Thursday May 11, at 12 in 4 lots, by order of the representatives of the late Isaac Cooper esq.
The Manor of Longfield in Kent, between Farningham and Northfleet, extending over the whole parish. Also the farm of 241 acres; the manor house, with garden and outbuildings; on lease to Mr Binstead (sic = Bensted), at £160 for 14 years. It is held under the Archdeacon of Rochester for 21 years from 1821, at only £6 10s.
A farm at Southfleet, with good buildings, and 80 acres of land; on lease to Mr R Morris, a very old tenant, for 14 years from 1825 at £70; held for 21 years from 1822, at £8 17s 4d.
A valuable Marsh Farm of 72 acres, in the Isle of Grain, near Sheerness; let to Mr John Buckhurst, an old tenant, at £150 a year; held for 21 years from 1822 at £7 only.... Messrs Robins, Covent Garden, London."
[Discharged by proclamation usually meant no evidence was offered against them. Although it appears Richard had spent 2 months on remand in Maidstone Gaol - South Eastern Gazette 27.1.1827.]
Prison had been admitted to bail; he was landlord of the Black Lion Public House, at Hartley, and is 78 years old.
The evidence was of a very doubtful nature, and it appeared the girl had always evinced extreme levity of conduct for so young a female. She stated the prisoner had two years before attempted a similar act.
His lordship in summing up, commented strongly on the absence of testimony to shew that the original violence, two years ago, had injured the person of the prosecutrix; and the jury without hesitation acquitted the prisoner."
[Amelia died in 1840, aged only 23 - Hartley Parish Register]
The judges for the ploughing for this year were: Thomas Colyer esq, Southfleet; Mr Russell, Horton (Kirby); John Green esq, Eltham; Mr Sears, Dartford; Mr Russell, Swanscombe; Mr Solomon, Swanscombe and they awarded the premiums as follows:-
To George Stevens, servant to Mr Cooper of Sutton at Hones, with a turnrise plough and 4 horses - £3.
Thomas Levitt, servant to Mr Attree, Erith, the 2nd prize, £2
David Weller, servant to Mr Bensted of Hartley, the 3rd prize, £1 10s
Henry Bird, servant to Mr Sears of Dartford, the 4th prize, £1
Stephen Bassett, servant to Mr Elgar of Sutton at Hone, with a turnrise plough and 3 horses, £2
John Trull, servant to Mr John Staples, with a turnrise plough and 3 horses, the 2nd prize, £1 10s
Edward Vallins, servant to Mr John Shearley, Wollary Cray, £1
The unsuccessful ploughmen were all paid a small sum for encouragement, and several who were not entitled to premiums, received presents from the committee.
The company retired to the Hop Pole Inn, Farningham, to dine at 4 o'clock, and nearly 100 gentlemen and farmers, with their friends, sat down to an excellent dinner. The worthy baronet, Sir Thomas Dyke, the president of the association, from ill health, was unable to preside; he however kindly supplied the table with some excellent venison and game from his park at Lullingstone Castle. Percival Hart Dyke esq, took the chiar and Bertie Cator esq acted as vice-president. In addition to the usual toasts and sentiments on such occasions, several excellent vocal performers highly entertained the company till a late hour.
The premiums for the shepherds and servants will be awarded by the committee as soon as they can conveniently meet to adjust them."
The coming in will be easy. For particulars, apply at the office of Mr Fooks, solicitor, Dartford, where a map of the estate may be seen."
[Given the advert of 30.9.1831 where it is said Owen Parsons is leaving the farm, it would seem this advert refers to New House Farm.]
[Mr Rider was elected in 1832 for the Liberal party. However it was not until the 1874 General Election that the secret ballot was used.]
Very capital freehold estates, exonerated from the land tax, and in a fine sporting country, called Fawkham Court Farm, in the occupation of Mr William Crowhurst, comprising an excellent Farm House, Oasthouse, barns and all requisite agricultural buildings, and 292 acres of valuable hop ground, arable, meadow and woodlands, situate at Fawkham, about midway betwen the turnpike roads leading from London through Dartford to Dover, and through Farningham to Maidstone and Hythe; being 7 miles from Dartford, 5 from Farningham and only 22 from London. And about 49 acres adjoining, in the respective occupations of Messrs Cooper and Smith and Mr Young. Also the Manor of Fawkham, with all quitrents, rights, members, profits and emoluments thereto belonging.... Messrs Driver, Surveyors and Land Agents, 8 Richmond Terrace, Parliament Square, London."
[Maidstone Journal 24.12.1833 reported the outcome of the sale: "On Wednesday at the auction Mart there was a sale of the following property: The freehold Fawkham Court Lodge Farm estate at Fawkham, Kent, farm house, oasthouse, barns, and all requisite agricultural buildings, stabling etc, garden and 292 acres of hop ground, arable, meadow and woodlands; let for 7 years from 1830 at £120 pa.; also Park Field, containing 6a 3r 17p, let at £4 10s for the like term, together with the manor of Fawkham, with the quitrents, producing annually £1 17s 7d, and all other profits, rights, royalties and appurtenances; land tax redeemed; timber etc to be taken at a valuation - £4,820. Church Down Farm adjoining, new built farm house, dairy, barns, stables, and buildings, orchar and land, in all 42a 1r 13p freehold, and land tax redeemed; let for 14 years from 1830 at £40 a year - £900."]
31 ploughs conteneded for the various prizes. The ground, however, from the recent long and continued drought was in so hard and flinty a state as to render the exertions of the hardy competitors a work of extraordinary difficulty and labour. Within a very short time after commencing 5 ploughs were in consequence compelled to decline the contest. The lower field was in a better state than the upper, to plough which, to use the words of one of the ploughmen in it, was like ploughing a turnpike road. There were but 7 ploughs at work in the lower field, which was a matter of regret, it being sufficiently larger and convenient for the whole number of ploughs entered. The ploughs used were the common English turnrise, and the only exception as to the manner of using them was that of Lord Templemore's the horse of which were driven in a single instead of a double team, the effect of which, from the state of the ground, was evidently beneficial. The work in the lower field was finished a full hour before that of the upper, which was not till 5 minutes after 3 o'clock..... The first premium £3 for 4 horses and a turnrise plough was given to William Tomlin, servant to Mr P Ray of Horton... the 5th ditto to William Conford, servant to Mr Bensted, of Hartley, £1.
A premium of £3 was given to James Martin, for having worked 40 years for Mr Bensted of Hartley, brought up a family of 8 chldren, and never received any parochial relief." (paper goes on to describe dinner at Black Lion, Farningham).
[Charles Day was born in Hartley and lived at the time in Hartley Bottom Road, probably at Goldsmiths Cottage or possibly the next door Skips Cottage. In spite of the injuries he lived to the age of 83, and was able to work as a farm labourer. See 4 August 1835 for details of the trial.]
The London and Greenwich Railway, having received the sanction of Parliament, and a considerable portion of hte works being already performed and now fast advancing towards compleiton, within the estimates originally made, it has occurred to many persons who are friendly to that undertaking, as well as to the general formation of railways, that an extension of that mode of communication from Greenwich to Gravesend would not only prove an advantageous investment for capital, but to a commercial and political point of view, of the greatest public benefit. A meeting has therefore taken place, under the auspices of the gentlemen whose naes are enumerated above, for the purpose of carrying the proposed measure into immediate operation, who have entered into a subscription whith other gentlemen for the purpose of defraying the expenses of a survey and application to parliament.
The advantages of a railway communication to all persons engaged in business who resort to Gravesend and particularly those connected with the arrival and departure of the foreign mails, numerous Indiamen and other vessels, which aare frequently and necessarily detained there, as well as to all persons travelling to every town on the Canterbury and Dover road and the coast of Kent, must in this case be peculiarly striking, more especially as the time will thereby be reduced from an average of 2 hours and a half to one hour.
An arrangement, satisfactory to both parties, has been effected between the gentlemen concerned in this undertaking and the Greenwich Railway Company, for the passage of their engines and carriages along the Greenwich Viaduct.
The ascertained number of passengers going by steam boats to and from London and Gravesend alone, during the last year, exceeded 750,000.
The following is an estimate of the returns derived from the present traffic on the line of the road, founded upon railway charges.
Stage Coach Passengers £25,884
Parcels by coaches and vans £5,237
Posting, and travelling by private carriages £9,325
Goods by common carriers £2,234
Goods by private carts not common carriers £5,780
Fish now actually forwarded by land carriage £265
Steam Boat passengers, 1/10 of the number now travelling between London and Gravesend £11,250
Deduct Annual expense of locomotive power, repairs, taxes, rates, salaries and management £25,000
Net annual income £34,975
Nothing is assumed in this estimate for any indirect traffic on the Maidstone, or Ashford and Folkestone roads (although the committee believe that they might calculate upon a considerable revenue from that source), nor for any increase of traffic resulting from this improved mode of conveyance. In the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and other similar undertakings, and increase in the item of passengers alone has been proved to have taken place to an extent varying from 75 to 300 per cent.
To accomplish this object, itis proposed that a coapital of £600,000 shall be raised 30,000 shares of £20 each; and that a deposit of 10 shillings per share shall be paid on subscribing, which shall be held applicable to defray all the incidental expenses incurred in preparing for, and obtaining an act of parliament etc.
The subscribers to be answerable beyond the amount of their actual deposits, should the act not be obtained; and if obtained, not beyond the amount of their respective subscriptions...."
[When the bill came before parliament it was lost, local MP Sir William Geary supported it, but Greenwich MP John Angerstein opposed. George Young, MP for Tynmouth from a firm of shipbuilders was also opposed - could this be because the proponents of the bill thought they would take a lot of the steamer trade? The Admiralty were also known to oppose a line east of Greenwich. In 1836 the South Eastern Railway won the right from Parliament to construct a line from London to Dover via Dartford and Gravesend, but it was not until 1849 that the line reached Gravesend.
This prospectus gives an interesting insight into the amount of passenger traffic on the roads and river at the time, but it must be remembered that these are estimates. At the time passenger fares averaged 2d per mile, so the revenue suggested that they reckoned annual road traffic between Gravesend and Greenwich to London was 4.23 million passenger miles, with a further 16.5m passenger miles for the mainly tourist river traffic to Gravesend. Today the rail traffic from Gravesend alone amounts to over 60 million passenger miles annually.]
About a month ago, a barn belonging to Mr William Bensted, a respectable farmer of Longfield Court, in the county of Kent, was feloniously entered in the night and 12 sacks of beans taken from it. Information having been given to the Greenwich Station House, Inspector Thomas obtained a search warrant, found a part of the property in the stables of the Kentish Drovers public house in the Kent Road. He took the ostler, John Collett into custody, and after an examination before the magistrates at Bexley, he was committed for trial on the 25th ult as a receiver of property, knowing it to be stolen. From further information Mr Thoams received, he suspected the thieves to be three men, called William Wellington, Thomas King and John Taylor, who resided on Bexleyheath, and were well known to be notorious thieves and a pest to the neighbourhood, which they absconded from as soon as they were aware of the police being near, and the errand on which they were. Having ventured to return, two of them, viz King and Taylor, were apprehended, and committed from Dartford on Tuesday last to take their trial for the robbery. Wellington is still at large, but there is every hope of his being taken. Taylor, who has but one arm, has already been transported 7 years for felony. The fellows had horses and carts, and from the confessions of King since his committal, we are informed a wholesale system of plunder has been long carried on by these marauders. The magistracy are much pleased with the discovery, and particularly so with the exertions and skill of Inspector Thomas and policeman Dyke, as well as with the whole local police force in general, in all cases affecting the peace and security of society."
[South Eastern Gazette 14.4.1835 reports on the trial at the Quarter Sessions. John Collett, 31 got 14 years' transportation, John Taylor, 39, was transported for life, while Thomas King, 30 was discharged by proclamation. Kentish Gazette 5.5.1835 reported that John Taylor and John Collett were removed from Maidstone Gaol to prison hulk Fortitude at Chatham.]
The expendiure during the same period was £71 6s, a sum of £5 having ben ahded over tot eh aprient society for its general purposes, hte balance in hand is £3 8s 4d. The distribution of books from depository had been as follows: 96 Bibles, 63 New Testaments, 167 Prayer Books, 2,840 books and tracts. Total 3,166 publications. The Rev Heberden moved, and the Rev J Day seconded the adoption of the above report.
The Venerable Archdeacon of Rochester in moving the second resolution, which was as follows 'That this meeting, convinced that no greater benefit under Divin Providence, can be furnished through the instrumentality of man to the poor and nation at large than a sound religious education, and gratefully recognises the aid which the National Society has ever received from the SPCK, approve their united operation, and recommend the objects to public support', said ....... he felt that there was such a call upon him now, and this was what induced him to come forward. Teh question of national education was one of vital importance It was in fact, the question of questions. He would not go into details, but confine himself to one of two important points, first, he would endeavour to shew from the facts and figures, the connexions between the want of education and the increase of crime; and secondly,t he quantity of education that was required for the people of this country......... In England and Wales, during the course of the last year, there were 73,612 persons put on their trial. Of this number 8,464 were utterly without education; 12,298 were imperfectly educated, and only 300 had received what could be called a decent education. It was an appalling fact, and one that strongly proved the necessity of a system of national education, tht 2,654 of these persons wer 14,15 or 16 years of age. There surely must be a great want of education, since so many of that ge ould be found in the criminal list. He would come still nearer home. The population of all England and Wales was 15 million; that of all Kent 500,000. Now the persons accused of crim in Kent during the last year had been 896 whereas, according to the proportion of the population, to that of the entire county, it should have been 766, a frightful proof of the effect of want of education. Of this number 128 were under the age of 16, whereas, according to the proportion of the population, 88 should have been the number. He considered nother further necessary, after these facts, to prove his part of his statement, and would therefore proceed. In the second place, to point out the quantity and exent of the education required. He would remind them that the population in England and Wales was 15 million; the proportion of these under education ought to be 4.5 million, but in point of fact not more than 1.5 million were receiving education, and at least a half of these received no instruction except from Sunday Schools. In this district alone, there were at least 3,000 children who ought to be receiving education, of which number only one half were receiving it, and 500 only Sunday Scholars. Part of those who received daily instruction obtained it at private schools, or dame schools or similar places. Of all Protestant countries he believed this to be the worst, in point of national education; for let England be considered in reference to other countries, Denmark was about the best specimen, perhaps, in Europe; its population was about 2 million, amongst whom were abut 300,000 children, of whom 278,500 were under education. Prussia with 14 million of populatio and 2.8 million children, had 2,250,000 in her schools. France 33 million, children 4.8 million, of whom 2 million were educated............. After these facts, he would briefly conclude by saying, that if he were to appeal to the charity of the meeting, he would have a right to do so; for no cause was dearer to God than the one relating to the salvation of the soul. But he might go beyond the mere point of duty, and shew them that it was their best interest to promote this cause, as there could not be a more effective way to keep the country in general, and their own neighbourhood in particular, peaceable, orderly, and quiet. The best policeman was the schoolmaster; the best gaol was the schoolhouse or the church; and if they knew the superior value of preventive to punitive measures - and if they therefore promoted the extension of schools and of churches, they would soon discover a sufficient reward for their expense and labour in the increasing tranquility and virtue of the land. They could not stop the course of national education; he know that it had many opponents; that there were many who had actually set their faces against it, he could scarsely say why; but it seemed to hi that it would scarcely be a want of charity to suppose that they had not been really well educated themselves, and not therefore having derived any benefit from the instruction which they had themselves received, they wee the less willing to incur expense and trouble to extend it to others what they had not found a blessing in their own case. The National Society was however progressing, notwithstanding their opposition. It was formed in the yer 1811, and from that period up to the year 1837 its income had never reached to £11,000; indeed, in the year last mentioned, it was but £1,054, and had but 560 subscribers; but in the year 1839 its income amounted to £21,000 and it could number 12,000 staunch friends. This resolution spoke of the connexion between the National Society and the SPCK, and he ought to observe that £5,000 of the above large increase in the income of the former of these societies was derived from a grant from the latter.... In its first formation it embraced not only its present objects, but those also of the National Society and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and within 40 years from the date of its establishment it had founded upwards of 2,000 schools; since 1811 it has confined itself to the supply of books to the schools; last year it had given away £5,000 in such a manner as to occasion a saving of £14,000 to the funds of the National Society. The meeting ought to remember that he was now pleading for those who could not assist themselves to obtain a good education without the aid of such societies as those under their consideraion. If the poorer classes were not instructed by them, they never could afford to obtain instruction at all. Those who heard him expected to be well and faithfully served by their inferiors, but how could they reasonably expect this if they left them untuaght in every right principle. He concluded by saying "Let us only give the poor a really good, a religious education, and they never will be able to call us their debtors."......... The resolution was put and carried unanimously.
The Rev Dr Joynes moved the 3rd resolution, which was as follows: 'That this society views with satisfaction the efforts that have been ade during the past year towards the establishment of schools for the children of the poor in neighbouring villages.' The Rev Dr began by expressing his conviction, that there was no need for saying uch after the eloquent address of the Venerable Archdeacon. The destitution spoken of was a matter of fact, which needed few illustrations, but he would employ one There was scarcely a week in which emigrant ships did not stop in the river here on their wasy to Nova Scotia, Canada or Australia. This was in itself a proof of the increase of population in this country; as the population inreased, the means of obaining support by labour decreased; until the poor man's only hope of bettering his condition lay in emigration. It followed hence that emigration proved that the labouring man in this country, was in want of means to live - how much more must he be in want of means to educate his children, unless assisted by this and similar societies? The meeting or country might reason as they would, but they must ultimately come to the conclusion, that unless the poor were educated by their country, the mass of the must remain ignorant. He had heard that in four alone of the great manufacturing towns of the north, there were no fewer than 84,000 young persons utterly uninstructed; and he would ask what must be the ultimate lot of this great number, but that they would swell the crowds of disorderly and vicious by which our manufacturing districts were already disgraced....... Now, if we were only to think of the consequences to ourselves, we shoudl see that this was launchig on the world tens of thousands of mischievous creatures hastening on to another world, without the least restraint on their willingness to injure ourselves. If we were only to think of their happiness we should be inclined to help them; the labouring man cannot always find employment; what judgement is he to follow when he finds himself destitute of the means of support? If he be not educated and therefore not in the habit of exercising his mental powers, there is nothing that he is more likely to do, than to follow his animal propensities to any excess of profligacy or violence, to which they may lead him. If we were to look to his eternal interests, we ought ot remember, that the totally uneducated poor an has not been taught to look up for that divine guidance and grace, without which we can do nothing. He therefore lives a mere animal life, and we have no right to suppose that, after years spent in all the all the misery of sin and vice, he will a length be launched into heaven by a miracle. The age of miracles is past, and heaven works by means and though we may say that the labouring classes have the means, that they have Bibles, churches, ministers, and other means of instruction, yet, unless they be trained to it, they have no idea of using those means Can we patiently sit by, whilst we have all these blessings ourselves abundantly, knowing that the children of the poor are exposed to such deprivations? Nay, our own interest demanded an effort on this point. A single mischievous servant might destroy the repose of a family. The very comfort of our neighbourhood might be destroyed by the ignorance of the poor. In walking from his own house to the Town Pier, he might be exposed to many annoyances from the want of education of the populace. A drunken man might stagger against him with an oath, a beggar might interrupt him by his impertenance, and to this and the like the whole community might be exposed, so long as the mass of the population were untaught........... Now he would say, that those 84,000 uneducated children in the four greatest towns, of which he had spoken, were likely to be the future chartists and socialists, and if the public did not educate them on scripture principles, they would be ready to break out presently. Every one who was really a man of humanity would rather send a poor child to school to learn what is good, than to gaol for doing what was wrong. We did not know what might be the future destiny of our country, but whatever calamity, whatever trial, whatever chastisement it might please God to send us, we ought to try to have the labouring classes ready to comfort us by their obediance and good under such visitations; we should therefore give a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether to educate the children of the poor; so shall we most effectually keep the whole country united, orderly and happy.
The Rev J P Alcock, in seconding the resolution, said that he felt he had strong reasons for supporting such a cause as this. He was thankful for his own education; he felt it had been a blessing to himself, and he was anxious to extend the same benefit to others; he also remembered that one of the societies, whose cause he now pleaded, the National Society, had made a grant of £50 towards the erection of a building for a Sunday School in a parish of which had the charge some years since; he had felt it his duty to spend 3 hours every Sunday in that school, and he had the most convincing proofs of hte lasting benefits which it had conferred on the parish. He had lately had occasion to visit that place, and he had not only had the pleasure of hearing that many of the young people trained in that school had turned out well, and were giving satisfaction to their employers, but the still higher gratification of receiving the blessings of many of their parents for the good which he had been the means of conveying to their children. He would take the liberty of defining education in its true sense. It was a training not for time only, but for eternity. Whatever else might be taught, it was essential to impres on the mind of every child, that he had an immortal and responsible soul - that there was a God, who saw and judged every thought and action - that he had a Saviour, who died for his reconciliation - and that a future and eternal state of rewards and punishments awaited him.......... This country had within the last few years, expended £20 million in ransoming the best Indian slaves, and yet with a strange inconsistency was leaving thousands of factory children uneducated, and in all the slavery of ignorance (the £20m was the compensation paid to slave owners when slavery was abolished in 1833, equivalent to £16.5bn today). The population of the country was daily increasing, and yet we had done little in church extension, or religious education. Thousands have, through other means, recieved some instruction in literature, and what has been the consequence? Why, that we may find newspapers filled with abuse of everything that is venerable or holy, assailing private character and venting their filth not only against the throne, but against the majesty of God himself, read by thousands, while religious education was at a low ebb. We had neglected to build schools, but we had built workhouses. We had built jails, we had sent convicts by ship-loads to our penal colonies; we had neglected their spiritual interests there. Such was not the system appointed by God himself............ Such was the testimony alike of the Scriptures and of the national church, as to the duty of Christian education; and he might adduce the testimony of their own feelings also. They might go through a parish - they might look at the schoolhouse - they might admire the neatness of the building, and its apparent fitness for the purposes for which it was intended - but they would not be satisfied unless they were assured that a good education was given within. The National Society exerted itself to satisfy them on that point; for it not only assisted in building and furnishing the schoolhouse, but it did what was of infinitely more importance. It trained the teachers in the best methods of scriptural instruxtion, in order that the children, being taught to read an to understand the Word of God, and having the catechism and other formularies of our church impressed upon their minds, might go forth ready to give a reason for the hope that was in them ,might go forth thankful to thier school, to their church, to their Queen, and to their country, and might shew this thankfulness by becoming good and useful members of society. And the blessings of such an institution often reached furhter than the school or the scholar. He had himself conducted a Sunday School in one parish for more than 5 years; and in many instances he had found the parents had been instructed by their own children. Some might feel inclined to ask what they could do much by their subscriptions, and still more by inviting their friends and neighbours to aid a society which extended such benefits to the rising generation. The resolution being then put, was carried unanimously.
The Rev A Tate, in moving the 4th resolution, 'That the SPCK, from the care which it has taken of the wants of the people, deserves universal support', said he would simply allude to the operations, origin, and nature of that Society. It was originally and necessarily a School Society; for in distributing Bibles, prayer books and other religious publications it had found the necessity of first teaching many of the poor to read. It accordingly founded several schools in the metropolis, many of which continue to the present day...... About 10 years ago there had been a number of incendiary fires in this part of the country; and this, he maintained, was a proof of the ignorance of the peasantry, on one point in particular, on the nature of fire insurances, for, thad they understood these, they would have been awre that they were not, by their lawless proceedings, inflicting the slightest injury on the farmers, whom they so foolishly thought their enemies but a heavy one on a mercentile body with which they could never come into contact, they would have abstained from such a method of shewing their displeasure. (newspaper says they have run out of space to report further)"
[Report from Dover Express 24.10.1840] "Incendiary fire near Gravesend.
On Tuesday morning last, a destructive fire broke out on the farm of Mr Andrews, situate in the village of Ash, about 7 miles from Gravesend. An investigation has taken place for the purpose of inquiring as to the origin of the fire, and it was clearly proved that it was the act of an incendiary. the property is not insured. The loss is reported to be £500."
[The Quarter Sessions tried middling crimes between the Petty Sessions and the Assizes. They were overseen by magistrates with a jury and met at the 4 quarter days of the year. Quarter Sessions and the Assizes were replaced by Crown Courts in 1972. The report gives us the historically correct pronounciation of Foxborough Wood and mentions the former King's Arms pub in Hartley Bottom Road, now Hartley Bottom Farm.]
[No Ann Day of the right age in the 1841 census, so possibly this refers to the other Hartley in Kent. However Days are a well known family in the parish at the time and the news item is with others on nearby Eynsford and Farningham, and the other Hartley was on the turnpike road, so wouldn't be called 'retired'.]
[Resurrectionist is another term for grave robber. Fortunately the local versions of Burke and Hare were not responsible. The same paper of 21 August 1841 reported "A paragraph recently appeered in the papers respecting a coffin plate where the body had been interred. The grave has since been opened and the coffin and plate undisturbed, so that there must have been two plates made, one of which most probably was thrown away, and was found as desribed."]
May be viewed on Monday next; sale on Tuesday, punctually at half past ten o'clock on account of the great number of lots and shortness of days.
Catalogues at the auctioneer's office, 36 New Road Gravesend....."
[The time was very impressive, the first official world record for the distance was 10.5 seconds in 1870, although of course the length of the cuorse and timings were probably a bit inexact in those days.]
[Probably not expected to be a very long meeting, as they have a similar meeting for Horton Kirby at 2pm at the same time and place]
On Thursday last on eof the most numerous and influential assemblages of agriculturists we ever saw in this town, took place at the Town Hall, in order to form an Agricultural Portection Association for West Kent. The meeting which originated entirely with the tenant farmers of the immediate neighbourhood, was composed of persons of various political sentiments, but all having one common bond of union, superior to any mere party views or objects - Proteection to our native agriculture. Several preliminary meetings had been held by the tenant farmers, who at last resolved to hold a public meeting for the above mentioned object, and to call upon the landlords to come forward and assist them in doing battle against the general enemy. The present meeting showed with what alacrity the call had been responded to, and proved that however proper it may be for tenants firs 'to take up arms agains the sea of troubles' with which the League threaten them, the landlords will not suffer them to go into the fray single-handed..... [List of leading people present].... // The Anti-Corn League was represented on the occasion by a trio of 'worthies' viz Mr Will Short, a character famed in the electioneering annals of the town, Mr 'Gammon' costermonger, who renders himself notorious by driving about the town with a green ribbon in his hat at elections, indicating that he had not finally determined on which side to vote, but requires a little more 'persuasion', and finally Mr Joe Durrant, an itinerant penny pamphlet dealer, bill sticker etc - otherwise known as the 'castigator of the whigs.' These three did their best occasionally to disturb the meeting, by roaring to the top of their 'most sweet voices', but their zealous exerations in the cause of free trade only served to augment the force of the day's proceedings by the contrast it afforded to the numbers, unity and zel of the agriculturalists present.
[Lengthy reports of various speeches. The two below are of local interest]
W Masters Smith esq of Camer, had much pleasure in seconding the motion. If ever there was a time when farmers ought to be unite, and when there was a body to be opposed, the time was the present, and the body was that which sought to aggrandise itself at the expense of the agricultural community (cheers). He, however, could not regret that it had taken so extreme a course - a course whch had aroused the farmers from their too common and too blameable apathy and indifference, thus to come forward, as they had done on the present occasion (cheers). He would not detain them by any lengthened remarks, as all the objections which could be urged against their proceedings had been most satisfactorily answered, adn the objects they had in view had been most ably stated. He trusted the movement would not end there, but that if, at any future time, hireling agitators, traders in deceit, came to disturb their county, the farmers would be found ready to meet them, and like an undecided jury, take and discharge them at the confines of the county (loud cheering)
Joseph Berens esq, before the motion was put begged permission to make one or two observations. He had no knowledge of the meeting till the latter end of the week, and knowing the distance of his part of the county, and the inconvenience to many persons of travelling to the meeting, he had felt it his duty to give every assistance to his brother farmers in his own neighbourhood. He therefore early on Saturday drew up a paper which contained a declaration, such as he thought would embody the sentiments of every farmer hostile to the league, and having sent it to Dartford market, in scarsely more than an hour it was signed by more than 70 persons, who might fairly be considered as being present at the meeting by him, their agent. (Mr Berens then read the following declaration).
'We the undersigned, hereby declare our firm determination to oppose by every means in our power the principles and the proceedings of the Anti-Corn Law League, tending directly to the ruin of the farmer and the destruction of the labourer. We look to the Houses of Parliament to check so mischievous a conspiracy, and to maintain those laws which their wisdom has established. We claim for agriculture the protection which is afforded to the manufacturer. We claim it as due to the vast capital laid out upon our farms, by which the nation is fed independent of foreign states, over whose laws we could have no control. We claim it as the sole support of the labouring classes in health, and as the principal ratepayers to relieve the poor in their distress. We claim it as the only means of affording to the farmer, that degree of prosperity, which can ensure to the manufacturer the certain and steady profit of a home market. We rely upon the justice and upon the wisdom of Parliament, to uphold the agricultural interest as that upon which our existence as a great nation depends, and to check the progress of a combination whose proceedings are so adverse to the spirit of the constitution, and we believe so contrary to law. We assure the meeting of our zealous cooperation in all those measure which they may deem expedient for the general good. (Signatories included Joseph Berens, Kevington, William Bensted, Hartley; W Hodsoll, South Ash; William Cooper jun, Fawkham; James Armstrong, Southfleet; William Durling, Ash; signatories were from Ash 2, Bexley 6, Chelsfield 1, Chislehurst 1, Crayford 1, Cudham 1, Darenth 3, Dartford 4, Erith 6, Fawkham 1, Hartley 1, Horton Kirby 3, Kevington 1, Orpington 1, Ruxley 2, St Mary Cray 10, St Paul's Cray 1, Shoreham 2, Shorne 3, Southfleet 2, Stone 4, Sutton at Hone 3, Swanscombe 1, West Kingsdown 1, West Wickham 1, Wilmington 3)
[The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was one of those pivotal moments in British history, by abolishing tariffs on imported corn the country decided that it was a mainly industrial not an agricultural society. Naturally as Kent was then a mainly agricultural county, it favoured the law as it was, although it is interesting to note the relatively few signatures from Dartford town in Mr Berens's petition. In the end, in spite of repeal, corn prices remained relatively high until large scale imports from North America became possible in the 1870s. Mr Berens was right in one point, that ultimately it left Britain dependent on large scale food imports, that endangered the country in both world wars. For more, see Wikipedia Article on the Repeal of the Corn Laws. Mr Berens's petition, taken on a market day at Dartford is very interesting for showing the sphere of influence of the town. To the east that is much the same as today, extending to Ash, West Kingdown, Southfleet and Shoreham, but it has lost much influence to the west, to the emerging centres of Bromley and Bexleyheath.]
[I really couldn't make up my mind whether they are being serious or ironic, however a letter in reply to the paper on 26 December 1846 certainly assumed they were being serious.]
Mary Lines, landlady of a public house at Longfield, appeared to answer the complaint of Emma Wharton, daughter of ____ Wharton, beer house keeper of the same place. Emma Wharton, being sworn, deposed: On Christmas Day last a few minutes past 11 o'clock in the morning, I heard a noise in our house, and went out of the washhouse where I was, and saw Mrs Lines and my mother in the passage, scuffling. I went to assist my mother, whose neck Mrs Lines had made bleed. I took hold of my mother's arms and Mrs Lines hit me twice in the face and pulled my nose. She also made my mouth bleed besides tearing my cap off with some of my hair. The witness exhibited the cap, which bore the usual marks of a woman's combat. By Mr Russell: My father keeps a beer shop. Mr Lines keeps a public house. Our front door was shut. Mrs Lines came in the backdoor, which was open. There is a path from the road to the back door. There were some persons in the tap room. I hit Mrs Lines twice. We had a struggle. I did not see a spade used. Mary Wharton, the mother of the last witness, deposed: On Christmas Day, a little after 11, Mrs Lines cem to our back door and wanted to see who was in the tap room. She pushed herself in and my husband told her to go out, but she said she would not. He took hold of her to put her out, when she flew at him, and I went to take his part. She began to hit me as well, and 'tore my neck open'. My daughter came to assist me, when Mrs Lines 'pushed into her' and 'took hold of her nose and made her teeth bleed'. By Mr Russell: I did not see my daughter hit Mrs Lines first. She tore my neck and made it bleed with her finger nails. Another witness corroborated the above, adn added, after Mrs Lines had hit Emma Wharton, he saw Mrs Wharton take up a shovel and he took it away from her, and helped to get Mrs Lines out of the house - Fined 20 shillings and costs 14 shillings.
Edmund Longhurst was charged with poaching on the lands of H Beaumont, at Hartley. Edwin Cooper deposed: I am keeper to Mr Beaumont. On Sunday, the 3rd instant, I went with my brother to watch 3 wires I had found on the 2nd; about 8 o'clock defendant came to one of them, he went up to it and took hold of the string and put it down directly and went awy; there is no footpath near. By Longhurst: I did not see you set it nor take it up, you touched the string and went away directly. Fined 10 shillings and costs, which defendant said he could not pay, as he was out of work - Committed to Maidstone for one month."
[No landowner at Hartley called H Beaumont at the time; the paper says the defendant is Edmund but the census would suggest that he was really Edward Longhurst]
"Here lyeth interred Richard Meredyth
Esquire clerk of the Catrye, unto Queen
Elizabeth and unto King James, who de-
eased the 5th of June 1607 leaving behind
him Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Hum-
phrey Michell esquire adn 4 sons
Humfrey, Richard, Edmond & John' "
[This refers to the remains of the old manor house of Fawkham, which was in the field by the church.]
I beg to add taht I have been always intereset in the preservation of the ruin, and when it came to my knowledge some few years ago, that a similar proceeding was contemplated by the father of the present tenant, I wrote to Mr Selby of Ightham Mote, then the proprietor, and succeeded in rescuing it from destruction; and had I been aware of the intended destruction I should certainly have taken the liberty of interceding with the present proprietor.
I beg to assure the members of the British Archaeological Association that I fully participate in their praiseworthy anxiety for the preservation of any memorials of the piety of our ancestors which still exist i the parish.
I am, sir, your obedient servant, P Salwey, Ash Rectory."
Now being the proprietor of the piece of ground in question and anxious to free myself fro the odium to which my consent to such an act of vandalism would justly subject me, I beg to inform the public and more especially the antiquarian and archaeologist through the medium of your journal, that the tenant in making such an assertion offered a most deliberate and impudent falsehood. No permission indeed could have been granted, as no application for such a purpose has ever been made by the tenant since I came into possession of the property.
Noone, I assure you, can more sincerly regret the destruction of so venerable a relic than myself, and it was with a feeling of the deepest indignation I heard of the lawless and unjustifiable conduct of this person on my arrival from the north. I have also greatly to regret that Mr Salwey had not been [....] made aware of the intended demolition of these interesting remains, [.....] communication from him, either addressed to myself, or my daughter Mrs [.....] residing at Ightham Mote would have sufficed to prevent this lawless [.......] I may be allowed to add as a further excuse for the ignorance in which I remained as to the [......] of the latter, that the piece of ground upon which the ruin stood and rented by him, is the only property I possess in the parish of Fawkham, and that it is at a distance of 12 or 14 miles from Ightham Mote.......
I am sir, your obedient servant, PJ Selby, Ightham Mote"
Another report is in the South Eastern Gazette of 8.6.1847:
"Destructive Fire - On Saturday night, the 20th ult, at about 11 o'clock, a fire broke out in the house of Mr Bristow, grocer etc at Fawkham. The engine from Dartford was sent for, but there not being any water near it was entirely useless, and the whol of the premises were destroyed. Mr Bristow was insured.
On Monday, the 31st, William Colyer was brought before the Rev G C Renouard, at Swanscombe, by Thomas Young, constable of Fawkham, charged with stealing 4 pairs of boots from the shop of Mr Bristow, whilst on fire. William A Webster stated he was an assistant to Mr Bristow, that he saw the prisoner Colyer leaving Mr Bristow's premises with the boots in his possession, and he gave them into custody of Young, the constable - Committed for trial."
(2) Cross Channel Traffic: In the week ending 5 June, Folkestone saw 441 passengers, 5 carriages and 5 horses arrive and 491 passengers, 3 carriages and 4 horses depart for the continent.
[Paper of 27.2.1849 said in the week ending 24.2.1849 Folkestone had 269 passengers from and 201 going to Boulogne, and 69 passengers from and 15 going to Calais. The Boulogne boat also brought 32 boxes of continental mail]
[There is only one reference I know, of Hartley having a men's cricket team earlier than this. Alas no names of the players are given. The article refers to the height of the stumps in this match being 48 inches, under the 1829 laws of the game, the normal height would be 27 inches. 1848 Jan 11 Petition against Hop Duty Kentish Gazette
"To the hop growers of the county of kent. We the undersigned hop growers, respectfully request the attendance of the hop growers generally of hte county of Kent, at the Star Inn, Maidstone, on Thursday January 13th 1848, to consider the propriety of petitioning Parliament for the repeal of excise duty on home grown hops."
(25 signatures, including W Bensted - Hartley, W W & J Armstrong - Southfleet, Edward Collier - Southfleet)
[The question of hop duty came up regularly in Parliament at this time. It was finally abolished in 1862.]
[Live pigeon shooting for sport was outlawed in 1921. The King's Arms pub has since become Hartley Bottom Farm.]
Superintendent Registrar's District
Dartford (Hartley) - Cholera 1
Total (Great Britain) - Cholera 56, Diarrhoea 18.
[Looking at the Burial register, the case was probably William Longhurst, aged 45, who was buried 3 November 1845. The previous report had been 22 October 1849.]